Détention et camps / Detention and Camps

Documents

IVe Convention de Genève de 1949, art. 79: « Les Parties au conflit ne pourront interner des personnes rotégées que conformément aux dispositions des articles 41, 42, 43, 68 et 78 ». Selon l’article 41, « Si la Puissance au pouvoir de laquelle se trouvent les personnes protégées n’estime pas suffisantes les autres mesures de contrôle mentionnées dans la présente Convention, les mesures de contrôles plus sévères auxquelles elle pourra recourir seront la mise en résidence forcée ou l’internement, conformément aux dispositions des articles 42 et 43. Or, l’article 42, alinéa 1 stipule,: « L’internement ou la mise en résidence forcée des personnes protégées ne pourra être ordonné que si la sécurité de la Puissance au pouvoir de laquelle ces personnes se trouvent le rend absolument nécessaire » et l’article 43 : « Toute personne protégée qui aura été internée ou mise en résidence forcée aura le droit dobtenir qu’un tribunal ou un collège administratif compétent, créé à cet effet par la Puissance détentrice, reconsidère dans le plus bref délai la décision prise à son égard. Si l’internement ou la mise en résidence forcée est maintenu, le tribunal ou le collège administratif procédera périodiquement, et au moins deux fois l’an, à un examen du cas de cette personne en vue d’amender en sa faveur la décision initiale, si les circonstances le permettent. A moins que les personnes protégées intéressées ne s’y opposent, la Puissance détentrice portera, aussi rapidement que possible à la connaissance de la Puissance protectrice les noms ddes personnes protégées qui ont été internées ou mises en résidence forcée et les noms de celles qui ont été libérées de l’internement ou de la résidence forcée. Sous la même réserve, les décisions des tribunaux ou collèges indiqués au premier alinéa du présent article seront également notifiées aussi rapidement que possible à la Puissance protectrice ». Voir également l’article 78 : « Si la Puissance occupante estime nécessaire, pour d’impérieuses raisons de sécurité, de prendre des mesures de sûreté à l’égard de personnes protégées, elle pourra tout au plus leur imposer une résidence forcée ou procéder à leur internement. Les décisions relatives à la résidence forcée ou à l’internement seront prises suivant une procédure régulière qui devra être fixée par la Puissance occupante, onformément aux dispositions de la présente Convention. Cette procédure doit prévoir le droit d’appel des intéressés. Il sera statué au sujet de cet appel dans le plus bef délai possible. Si les décision sont maintenues, elles seront l’objet d’une révision périodique, si possible semestrielle, par les soins d’un organisme compétent constitué par ladite Puissance. […] ».

United States of America, Immigration and Nationality Act (last amended March 2004), 27 June 1952

Nigeria, Geneva Conventions Act, Cap G3 LFN 2004, 30 September 1960

A/RES/35/41/A/B, 25 November 1980, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: “Deploring, in particular, the instances of physical attacks on asylum seekers at sea and of military attacks on refugee camps in southern Africa”.

A/RES/36/125, 14 December 1981, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees : “Deploring, in particular, the instances of military attacks on refugee camps in Southern Africa and elsewhere []”; § 7: “Notes with great concern the serious humanitarian problems resulting from attacks on refugee camps and settlements which are the concern of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the need for special measures to protect and ensure the safety of such refugees”

UNHCR, Attaques militaires contre des camps de réfugiés et des zones d’installation en Afrique australe et ailleurs, 1 October 1982, EC/SCP/23 / UNHCR, Military Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements in Southern Africa, 1 October 1982, EC/SCP/23

UNHCR, Military Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements in Southern Africa and Elsewhere No. 27 (XXXIII) – 1982, 20 October 1982, No. 27 (XXXIII) – 1982

A/RES/37/195, 18 décembre 1982, Rapport du Haut Commissaire des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés, « Déplorant en particulier les cas d’agression militaire contre des camps de réfugiés en Afrique australe et ailleurs » ; § 3 : « Déplore la persistance de graves violations des droits fondamentaux des réfugiés et personnes déplacées dont s’occupe le Haut Commissariat, en particulier des agressions militaires contre les camps et les colonies de réfugiés en Afrique australe et ailleurs, des cas de refoulement et de détention arbitre, et souligne la nécessité de renforcer les mesures destinées à protéger les réfugiés contre de telles violations ».

UNHCR, Rapport de l’Ambassadeur Félix Schnyder: Attaques militaires contre des camps ou des zones d’installation de réfugiés en Afrique australe et ailleurs, 15 March 1983, EC/SCP/26

UNHCR, Projets de principes concernant les attaques militaires contre des camps et des zones d’installation de réfugiés soumis au Sous-Comité plénier sur la protection internationale, 30 September 1983, EC/SCP/32 / UNHCR, Draft Principles on Military Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements for Consideration by the Sub-Committee of the Whole on International Protection, 30 September 1983

UNHCR, Attaques militaires contre des camps et zones d’installation de réfugiés en afrique australe et ailleurs Nº 32 (XXXIV) – 1983, 20 October 1983, Nº 32 (XXXIV) / UNHCR, Military Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements in Southern Africa and Elsewhere No. 32 (XXXIV) – 1983, 20 October 1983, No. 32 (XXXIV)

A/RES/38/121, 16 December 1983, Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, § 3:deplores all violations of the rights and safety of refugees and asylum-seekers, in particular through military or armed attacks against refugee camps and settlements, other forms of brutality and failure to rescue asylum-seekers in distress at sea”.

UNHCR, Projet de conclusions sur les attaques militaires et armées contre les camps et les zones d’installation de réfugiés, 2 October 1984, EC/SCP/34/Add.1 / UNHCR, Draft Conclusion on Military Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements, 2 October 1984, EC/SCP/34/Add.1

A/RES/39/140, 14 December 1984, Report of the Unite Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, § 3: “Condemns all violations of the rights and safety of refugees and asylum-seekers, in particular those perpetrated through military or armed attacks against refugee camps and settlements and other forms of brutality and by failure to rescue asylum-seekers in distress at sea”.

UNHCR, Military and Armed Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements No. 45 (XXXVII) – 1986, 13 October 1986, No. 45 (XXXVII) – 1986

UN Commission on Human Rights, Situation in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, 6 February 1987, E/CN.4/RES/1987/49

UNHCR, Note sur les attaques militaires et armées contre des camps et des zones d’installation de réfugiés, 10 August 1987, EC/SCP/47 / UNHCR, Note on Military and Armed Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements, 10 August 1987, EC/SCP/47

UNHCR, Attaques militaires et armées contre des camps et zones d’installation de réfugiés Nº 48 (XXXVIII) – 1987, 12 October 1987, Nº 48 (XXXVIII) – 1987 / UNHCR, Military or Armed Attacks on Refugee Camps and Settlements No. 48 (XXXVIII) – 1987, 12 October 1987, No. 48 (XXXVIII) – 1987

Czech Republic, Act No. 498 of 1990 concerning Refugees (repealed),  1 January 1991

Slovenia, Foreigners Act 1991, 25 June 1991, Official Journal of the Republic of Slovenia, year I, No. 1-9/91, 25 June 1991

Lithuania, Law on Citizenship, 11 December 1991 (repealed)

Nepal, Immigration Act, 1992, 2 November 1992, Nepal Rajapatra, vol 42, No. 39 (E), Kartik 17, 2049

Republic of Korea, Immigration Act,  8 December 1992

Nigeria, High Court of Justice of Borno State, 2 September 1993, Ahmed Allatchi and 243 Others v. Chief of Army Staff and 4 Others, M/64m/92 [Censure détention et expulsion réfugiés]

Canada: Federal Court, 13 December 1993, Maarouf v. Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration), [1994] 1 F.C. 723  [Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Non-state agents of persecution | Persecution based on political opinion | Refugee camps | Refugee status determination (RSD) / Asylum procedures | Statelessness | Statelessness]

UN Security Council, Second Report of the Secretary-General on Security in the Rwandese Refugee Camps, 25 January 1995, S/1995/65

UN Security Council, Third report of the Secretary-General on security in the Rwandese refugee camps, 14 April 1995, S/1995/304

United Kingdom: Court of Appeal (England and Wales), 11 November 1996, Lawrence Matu Kagema v. Secretary of State for the Home Department [Asylum-Kenyan national-Kikuyu-attacked by Kalenjins-removed to camp-adjudicator and Tribunal concluded appellant had no well-founded fear of persecution if he returned to camp in Kenya-whether definition of persecution adopted by appellate authorities was too narrow-whether definition a matter of fact or law-whether conclusions of special adjudicator and Tribunal unreasonable. Handbook on procedures and criteria for determining refugee status para. 51]

Bangladesh, Chittagong Hill Tracts Treaty 1997, 2 December 1997

New Zealand, Refugee Status Appeals Authority, 18 June 1998, Refugee Appeal No. AB70765/98 [Appel contre refus octroi du statut de réfugié – Discrimination- gravité persécuction – Discrimination et persécution – Arbitrary arrest and detention | Bihari | Credibility assessment | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | Non-state agents of persecution | Persecution based on political opinion | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Refugee camps]

TPIY, Trial Chamber, 16 November 1998, Prosecutor v. Zejnil Delalic, Zdravko Mucic alias « Pavo », Hazim Delic, Esad Landzo alias « Zenga », Judgement, Case No. IT-96-21-T, § 565 : « The protection of civilians from harm during armed conflict is a fundamental aim of international humanitarian law. However, the freedom of movement of « ennemy » civilians during armed conflic may be retricted, or even temporarily suppressed, if circumstances so require. Thus there is no absolute right in the Geneva Conventions to freedom of movement. However, this does not mean that there is a général suspension of this right during armed conflict either. To the contrary, the regulations concerning civilians in the territory of a party to an armed conflic are based on the concept that the individual freedom of civilians should remain unimpaired. The right in question is therefore a relative one, which may be restricted [footnote omitted] » ; § 566 : « the confinement of civilians is permitted in certain limited situations » et §§ 574 ss., sp § 576 : « Clearly, internment is only permitted when absolutely necessary. Subverive actiity carried on inside the territory of a party to the conflic, or actions which are of direct assistance to an opposing party, may threaten the security of the former, which may, therefore, intern people or place them in assigned residence if it has serious and legitimate reasons to think that they may seriously prejudice its security by means such as sabotage or espionage » ; § 577 : « To justify recourse to such measures, the party must have good reason to think that the person concerned, by his activities, knowledge or qualifications, represents a real threat to its present or future security ». Voir enfin § 583 : « the confinement of civilians during armed conflict may be permissible in limited cases, but has in any event to be in compliance with the provisions of articles 42 and 43 of Geneva Convention IV. The security of the State concerned might require the internment of civilians and, furthermore, the decision of whether a civilian constitutes a threat to the security of the State is largely left to its discretion. However, it  must be borne in mind that the measure of internment for reasons of security is an excpetional one and can never be taken n a collective mbasis. An initially lawful internment clearly becomes unlawful if the detaining party does not establish an appropriate court or administrative board as prescribed in article 43 of Geneva Convention IV ».

New Zealand, Refugee Status Appeals Authority, 17 December 1998, Refugee Appeal No. 70739, No. 70739 [Chechen | Country of origin information (COI) | Discrimination based on race, nationality, ethnicity | Ingush | Non-state agents of persecution | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Refugee camps]

UNHCR, The Security, and Civilian and Humanitarian Character of Refugee Camps and Settlements, 14 January 1999, EC/49/SC/INF.2

Tanzania, Refugees Act, 1998, 15 April 1999

Azerbaijan, Law No. 669-1Q of 1999 « On Social Protection of Internally Displaced Persons and Persons Equated to Them », 21 May 1999

Belgique: Loi du 1999 visant à réduire la durée de la détention administrative des étrangers en séjour illégal sur le territoire belge, 6 July 1999

UNHCR, La sécurité et le caractère civil et humanitaire des camps et zones d’installation de réfugiés : Concrétiser « l’échelle d’options », 27 June 2000, EC/50/SC/INF.4 / UNHCR, The Security, Civilian and Humanitarian Character of Refugee Camps and Settlements: Operationalizing the « Ladder of Options », 27 June 2000, EC/50/SC/INF.4

Kenya, The Children Act, 2001, No. 8 of 2001, 31 December 2001

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 30 July 2002, PO(Risk – Return – General) Sierra Leone v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2002] UKIAT 03285 [Country of origin information (COI) | Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA)]

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 3 December 2002, FS (Camps – Vulnerable Group – Woman) Sierra Leone v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2002] UKIAT 05588 [Abduction | Country of origin information (COI) | Credibility assessment | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | IDP camps | Mental health | SGBV | Women-at-risk]

New-Zealand, Court of Appeal [CA], 16th April 2003, Attorney-General v Refugee Council of New Zealand Inc and ors, Appeal judgment, [2003] 2 NZLR 577, (2003) 7 HRNZ 1, ILDC 214 (NZ 2003) [Detention — Asylum — Refugees]

Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, 29 mai 2003, République Démocratique du Congo c. le Burundi, le Rwanda et l’Ouganda,  n° 227/99, http://caselaw.ihrda.org/fr/doc/227.99/view/, § 81 :« L’allégation de déportation massive de personnes des provinces orientales de l’Etat plaignant dans des camps au Rwanda, comme l’allègue le Plaignant et ne le réfute pas le Défendeur, est une violation de l’article 1 de la Charte africaine qui reconnaît la famille comme l’élément naturel et la base de la société et lui garantit une protection adéquate ».

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 17 June 2003, KB (Mixed Ethnicity – Roma/Albanian) Kosovo v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2003] UKIAT 00013 [Country of origin information (COI) | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Roma]

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 29 October 2004, KK IH HE (Palestinians – Lebanon – Camps) Jordan v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2004] UKIAT OO293 [Country of origin information (COI) – Credibility assessment – Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) – Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment – Palestinian – Persecution based on political opinion – Protection of camps – Refugee camps – Refugee status determination (RSD) / Asylum procedures – Statelessness]

African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights,  December 2004, Institute for Human Rights and Development in Africa (on behalf of Sierra Leonean refugees in Guinea) v. Guinea, 249/02

Human Rights Watch, No Exit: Human Rights Abuses Inside the Mojahedin Khalq Camps, 18 May 2005

High Court of Botswana, held at Francistown, 10 June 2005, Sefu and Others v The Attorney General of Botswana, Case No. F46 of 2005 [Demandeurs ressortissants de la RDC dont les demandes d’asile avaient été rejetées et résidant dans un camp de réfugiés sous la supervision du HCR pour lequel 3 d’entre eux travaillaient moyennant rémunération – demandeurs déplacés du camp vers le centre pour immigrants illégaux de Francistown – Mise en liberté sous caution applicable aux personnes poursuivies pénalement mais non à celles détenues sur le fondement du rejet de leur demande d’asile pour préparer leur expulsion – Liciété de la détention des demandeurs aux fins d’expulsion]

The Administration of Justice in Refugee Camps: A Study of Practice, March 2006, PPLA/2006/01

UNHCR, Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements. A Reference Guide of Good Practices in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of Concern, June 2006

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 17 July 2006, MA (Galgale – Sab Clan) Somalia v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2006] UKIAT 00073 [Credibility assessment | Effective protection | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | IDP camps | Madhiban | Non-state agents of persecution | Racial / Ethnic persecution]

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 3 August 2006, HGMO (Relocation to Khartoum) Sudan v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2006] UKAIT 00062 [Country of origin information (COI) | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Involuntary repatriation | Military service / Conscientious objection / Desertion / Draft evasion / Forced conscription | Persecution based on political opinion | Public health | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Single heads of household | Women-at-risk]

UNHCR, Principes directeurs opérationnels sur le maintien du caractère civil et humanitaire de l’asile, September 2006UNHCR, Operational Guidelines on Maintaining the Civilian and Humanitarian Character of Asylum, September 2006

UNHCR, Analysis of Gaps in Refugee Protection Capacity – Thailand, November 2006

Kenya, Refugees Act, No. 13 of 2006, 30 December 2006, 17 Laws of Kenya Cap. 173 (rev. ed. 2014)

UNHCR, Bangladesh: Analysis of Gaps in the Protection of Rohingya Refugees, May 2007

United Kingdom: Court of Session (Scotland), 16 January 2007, In the Petition of Fatima Helow to the nobile officium of the Court of Session, [2007] CSIH 5 [Independence of judiciary | Non-state agents of persecution | Palestinian | Persecution based on political opinion | Refugee camps]

New Zealand: High Court, 4 April 2007, Hassan v. Department of Labour, CRI 2006-485-101 [Criminal justice | False documents | Illegal entry | Immigration Detention | Refugee camps | Residence permits / Residency | Safe third country]

United Kingdom: Court of Appeal (England and Wales), 4 April 2007, AH (Sudan) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2007] EWCA Civ 297 [Country of origin information (COI) | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Military service / Conscientious objection / Desertion / Draft evasion / Forced conscription | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Refugee camps]

Sierra Leone, Act No. 6 of 2007, The Refugees Protection Act, 2007, 30 August 2007, Supplement to the Sierra eone Gazette, Vol. CXXXVIII, No. 42

United Kingdom: Court of Appeal (England and Wales), 30 October 2007, JK (Serbia) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2007] EWCA Civ 1321 [IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Persecution based on political opinion | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Roma]

United Kingdom: House of Lords (Judicial Committee), 14 November 2007, Secretary of State for the Home Department (Appellant) v. AH (Sudan) and Others (FC) (Respondents), [2007] UKHL 49 [IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Rejected asylum-seekers | Returnees]

European Union: European Parliament, The conditions in centres for third country national (detention camps, open centres as well as transit centres and transit zones) with a particular focus on provisions and facilities for persons with special needs in the 25 EU member states, December 2007, PE 393.275

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 25 February 2008, MM and FH (Stateless Palestinians – KK, IH, HE reaffirmed) Lebanon v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2008] UKAIT 00014 [Country of origin information (COI) | Credibility assessment | Discrimination based on race, nationality, ethnicity | Palestinian | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Refugee camps | Statelessness]

New Zealand: Refugee Status Appeals Authority, 19 March 2008, Refugee Appeal Nos. 76120, 76121, 76122 & 76123, Nos. 76120, 76121, 76122 & 76123 [Credibility assessment | Racial / Ethnic persecution | Refugee camps | Witnesses]

United Kingdom: Court of Session (Scotland), 28 March 2008, NO v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2008] CSIH 29 [IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA)]

Malawi: High Court, Lilongwe District Registry, 17 April 2008, Ex Parte Frodovaro Nsabimana and Others v The State and the Department of Poverty and Disaster Management Affairs and Another, Misc. Civil Application No. 19 of 2006 [Refugee / Asylum law | Refugee camps | Urban refugees]

United Kingdom: Asylum and Immigration Tribunal / Immigration Appellate Authority, 21 May 2008, WD (Lebanon – Palestinian – ANO – Risk) Lebanon v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2008] UKAIT 00047 [Country of origin information (COI) | Credibility assessment | Evidence (including age and language assessments / medico-legal reports) | Non-state agents of persecution | Palestinian | Persecution based on political opinion | Political groups | Refugee camps]

United Kingdom: Court of Appeal (England and Wales), 22 May 2008,RA (Lebanon) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2008] EWCA Civ 687 [Appeal / Right to appeal | Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | Non-state agents of persecution | Palestinian | Persecution based on political opinion | Refugee camps | Standard of proof]

United Kingdom: Court of Appeal (England and Wales), 30 July 2008, KH (Sudan); QA (Sudan); BK (Sudan); AA (Sudan); and KA (Sudan) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, [2008] EWCA Civ 887 [Deportation / Forcible return | IDP camps | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Women-at-risk]

Gambia, Refugee Act, 2008, 23 October 2008

Burundi, Loi No. 1/32 sur l’asile et la protection des réfugiés au Burundi, 13 novembre 2008

Zimbabwe, Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 19) Act, 2008, Act No. 1 of 2009, 13 February 2009

Kenya, Refugees (Reception, Registration and Adjudication) Regulations, 2009, 27 February 2009

European Union, European Parliament, European Parliament resolution on the humanitarian situation of Camp Ashraf residents, 24 April 2009, P6_TA(2009)0311

Ireland: High Court, 18 June 2009: S.B. v. Refugee Appeals Tribunal and Another, [2009] IEHC 270 [Népalais – Persécution raciale / ethnique – Camps de réfugiés – Apatridie]

Kazakhstan, Law of 2009 on Refugees, 4 December 2009 2009 (with amendments and additions as of 11.04.2014)

South Africa: Supreme Court of Appeal, 24 February 2010, Arse v The Minister of Home Affairs and others, Order of 24 February 2010, Case No. 52898/09 [IDP camps | Refugee / Asylum law | Refugee camps | Resettlement]

Kenya, The Kenya Citizenship and Immigration Act, 2011, Act No. 11 of 2011, 30 August 2011

Croatia, The Foreigners Act 2011, 13 November 2011, Official Gazette No. 130/11 dated 13 November 2011 ;Official GazetteNo. 74/13, dated 19 June 2013

United Kingdom: Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber), 18 May 2012, AK (Article 15(c)) Afghanistan v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, CG [2012] UKUT 00163(IAC) [EU Qualification Directive | IDP camps | Internal armed conflict | Internal flight alternative (IFA) / Internal relocation alternative (IRA) / Internal protection alternative (IPA) | Internally displaced persons (IDPs)]

Azerbaijan, Decree No. 047 of 2012, Guidelines on Managing Detention Centers for Irregular Migrants under the State Migration Service of the Republic of Azerbaijan, 17 September 2012

Kenya, Land Act (N. 6), 2012, 30 September 2012

Montenegro, Strategy for Improving the Position of Roma and Egyptians in Montenegro 2012-2016, December 2012

Australian National Audit Office (ANAO), Individual management services provided to people in immigration detention, Canberra, 2013

Slovakia, Act of 2002 on Asylum and Amendment of Some Acts, 1 January 2003

Kenya, Act No. 56 of 2012, The Prevention, Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons and Affected Communities Act, 2012, 4 January 2013

UN Security Council, Second report of the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 6 of resolution 2061 (2012), 12 March 2013, S/2013/154

Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act, 2013,  22 May 2013

High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, Milimani Law Courts Constitutional and Human Rights Division, 26 July 2013, Kituo Cha Sheria and others v. The Attorney General, Petition No. 19 of 2013 consolidated with Petition No. 115 of 2013 [Government Directive to move all refugees in urban areas to refugee camps – Nature and Extent of the rights and fundamental freedoms of refugees residing in urban areas in Kenya – Geneva Convention of 1951 domesticated by the Refugees Act, 2006 (No. 13 of 2006) –  ICCPR]

UNRWA, Relief and recovery support for displaced Palestine refugees from Nahr el-Bared camp : North Lebanon, August 2013

Rwanda, Law No. 13 ter/2014 of 21/05/2014 relating to refugees, 30 June 2014, Official Gazette n° 26 of 30 June 2014

République Démocratique du Congo, Projet de loi portant protection et assistance aux personnes déplacées internes,  29 September 2014

Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Rwanda : information sur les camps ingando, y compris l’organisation, la structure, les programmes et la participation; des cas de violation des droits de la personne dans ces camps (2010-novembre 2014), 24 November 2014, RWA104999.EF

Kenya, The Security Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014, December 2014

Kenya, High Court at Nairobi, Constitutional and Human Rights Division, 23 February 2015,Coalition for Reform and Democracy and others v. Republic of Kenya and others, Petition No. 628 of 2014 consolidated with Petition No. 630 of 2014 and Petition No. 12 of 2015 [Eloignement étrangers – Avoidance Doctrines – Séparation des pouvoirs – Freedom of movement | National security / Public order | Refugee / Asylum law | Refugee camps | Urban refugees]

Kenya, High Court, 18 December 2015, Refugee Consortium of Kenya & another v Attorney General & 2 others, Petition No. 382 of 2014 [Directive that all refugees residing outside designated refugee camps as specified in Gazette Notice No. 1927 must return to their designated camps immediately and order that all refugee registration centres in urban centres were to be closed – Tensions between measures taken to heighten ational security and the protection of the rights of minor refugees – Petitioners arrested and forcefully taken to Daadab Refugee Camp  « Best interests of the Child »]

UNHCR, Community-Based Protection in Action – Community-Based Outreach Outside of Camps, 2016

United Kingdom: Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber), 22 January 2016, R (on the application of ZAT and Others) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Article 8 ECHR – Dublin Regulation – interface – proportionality) IJR, [2016] UKUT 00061 (IAC) [Notion de camp – « Jungle » – Règlement Dublin – Droit à une vie privée et familiale – Accueil des demandeurs d’asile – Enfants non accompagnés – Entrée sur le territoire]

Greece, Law No. 4375 of 2016 on the organization and operation of the Asylum Service, the Appeals Authority, the Reception and Identification Service, the establishment of the General Secretariat for Reception, the transposition into Greek legislation of the provisions of Directive 2013/32/EC,  3 April 2016

Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), In Search of Safety, July 2016

Togo, Loi No. 2016-021 du 24 aout 2016, portant statut des réfugiés au Togo

United States of America, S.d.b. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS). « Detention Management » 19 September 2016

High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, 9 February 2017, Kenya National Commission on Human Rights & another v Attorney General & 3 others, Petition No. 227 of 2016 [2017] eKLR [Closure of Kakuma and Dadaab Refugee Camps – Decision to implement repatriation of refugees to Somalia, decision to revoke the prima facie refugee status of Somali – Whether the Government’s decision violated the principle of non-refoulement – Whether the Government’s Decision violated the Refugees’ Rights to a fair administrative action– Whether the Government’s decision violated the constitutional rights of the refugees – Whether the circumstances in Somalia have fundamentally changed to warrant repatriation of the Refugees]

Kenya: Court of Appeal at Nairobi, 17 February 2017, The Honorable Attorney General v. Kituo Cha Sheria and Others, Civil Appeal No.108 of 2014 [Appeal from the Judgment and Decree of the High Court of Kenya at Nairobi (Majonja J.) dated 26th July 2013 – Confirmation du jugement annulant  la décision prise en 2012-2013 de fermer les centres urbains d’enregistrement des réfugiés, les demandeurs d’asile/réfugiés devant être enregistrés et accueillis dans les camps de réfugiés et selon laquelle tous ceux qui apportent des services aux réfugiés cessent de le faire dans les zones urbaines et transfèrent ces services dans les camps]

Constitutional Court of South Africa, 29 June 2017, Lawyers for Human Rights v Minister of Home Affairs and others, Case CCT 38/16 [2017] ZACC 22 [Invalidité au regard de la Constitution de la section 34 de l’Immigration Act autorisant détention administrative sans procès aux fins d’expulsion]

Guinée, Loi L/2018/050/AN, relative à l’Asile et à la Protection des Réfugiés en République de Guinée, 20 June 2018

Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights, 28 February 2019, Khan c. France (application no. 12267/16), ECLI:CE:ECHR:2019:0228JUD001226716 [Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment | Refugee camps | Unaccompanied / Separated children]

Doctrine / Analyses

Cultures & Conflits, n° 57 – L’Europe des camps, 2005

Cultures & Conflits, n° 71 – Confinement des étrangers : entre circulation et enfermement, 2008

Acer E. & Goodman J., « Reaffirming Rights : Human Rights Protections of Migrants, Asylum Seekers, and Refugees in Immigration Detention », Georgia Immigration Law Journal, Vol. 24, 2009-2010, pp. 507-531.

Agier M., Gérer les indésirables. Des camps de réfugiés au gouvernement humanitaire, Paris, Flammarion, 2008

Agier M., « Humanity as an Identity and its Political Effects. A Note on Camps and Humanitarian Government », Humanity, n° 1, 2010

Agier M., Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government, English ed., Cambridge, Malden MA: Polity, 2011

Agier M., « L’encampement du monde », Plein droit n°90 mars 2011, pp. 21-24.

Agier M. (dir.), Un monde de Camps, Paris, La Découverte, 2014

Al Husseini J.,« The management of the Palestinian Refugee Camps in Jordan between logics of integration and exclusion », available at SSRN : https://ssrn.com/abstract=2166837, 2010, 21 p.

Anafé, Inhumanité en zone d’attente. Bilan 2008. Observations et interventions de l’Anafé en zoned’attente de Roissy, 2009, 58 p. URL : http://www.anafe.org/IMG/pdf/bilananafe-roissy-inhumanite-2008-.pdf

Anafé, Visites dans les zones d’attente de province et d’outre mer en 2007 et 2008, 2009, 30 p. URL : http://anafe.org/IMG/pdf/anafe-visite-za-juillet2009.pdf

Anafé, Dans les coulisses de Roissy : l’enfermement des étrangers en aérogare. Rapports de visites des aérogares de Roissy-Charles de Gaulle, 2016, 22 p. URL : http://www.anafe.org/IMG/pdf/anafe_-dans_les_coulisses_de_roissy_l_enfermement_des_etrangers_en_aerogare-_rapport_de_visites_des_aerogares_de_roissy-charles_de_gaulle.pdf

Bashford A. & Strange C., “Asylum-Seekers and National Histories of Detention”, Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2002, p. 509-527.

Benoit E., « Criminalité et justice sans souveraineté dans les camps de réfugiés du HCR : des systèmes de justice parallèle à l’impunité pour le personnel humanitaire », Revue québécoise de droit international, Hors-série, décembre 2015

Bernardot M., « Le pays aux mille et un camps. Approche socio-historique des espaces d’internement en France au XXe siècle », Recueil Alexandries, coll. Références, n° 9, décembre 2002, http://www.reseau-terra.eu/article542.html

Bernardot M., « Les mutations de la figure du camp », in Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison et al., Le retour des camps ?, Autrement « Frontières », 2007, pp. 42-55.

Bernardot M., Camps d’étrangers, Broissieux, Editions du Croquant, coll. Terra, 2008, 223 p.

Bernardot M., « Rafles et internement des étrangers : les nouvelles guerres de capture », in O. Le Cour Grandmaison (dir.), Douce France. Rafles, rétentions, expulsions, Paris, Seuil/RESF, 2009, pp. 45-71.

Bigo D., Circuler, enfermer, éloigner : zones d’attentes et centres de rétention aux frontières des démocraties occidentales, Paris, l’Harmatan, 1996, 221 p.

Bing C., La détention des demandeurs d’asile au sein de l’Union Européenne, Paris, L’Harmattan, Coll. International, 2016

Bitari N., “Yarmuk Refugee Camp and the Syrian Uprising: A View from Within”, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2013, pp. 61-78.

Black R., « Putting Refugees in Camps », Forced Migration Review, 1998, p. 4

Bo-Yuen Ngai P & Koehn Peter H., « Organizational Communication in Refugee Camp Situations », New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 71, October 2002

Bosworth M., Inside Immigration Detention, Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2014, xiv-283 p.

Bram J. Jansen, “’Digging Aid’: The Camp as an Option in East and the Horn of Africa”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2015, pp.149-165.

Bryan I., Langford P., “The Lawful Detention of Unauthorised Aliens under the European System for the Protection of Human Rights”, Nordic J.I.L. – Acta scandinavica juris gentium, vol. 80, 2011/2, pp. 193-218.

Bulle S., « Domestiquer son environnement dans un territoire confiné : le camp de réfugiés de Shu’faat à Jérusalem-Est », Genèses, 2009/1 (n° 74), p. 94-113.

Caloz-Tschopp M.-C., Les étrangers aux frontières de l’Europe et le spectre des camps, Paris, La Dispute, 2004, 252 p.

Carlier J.-Y., « L’accès au territoire et la détention de l’étranger demandeur d’asile” (CEDH, Grande ch., Saadi c. Royaume-Uni, 29 janvier 2008), RTDH, n° 79, 2009, pp. 795-810.

Clochard O., Gastaut Y., Schor R., « Les camps d’étrangers depuis 1938 : continuité et adaptations. Du « modèle » français à la construction de l’espace Schengen », Revue européenne des migrations internationales, vol. 20, n° 2, 2004, pp. 57-87.

Corbet A., Community After All? An Inside Perspective on Encampment in Haiti, Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 166–186.

Cornelisse G., Immigration Detention and Human Rights. Rethinking Territorial Sovereignty, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, coll. Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Europe, Vol. 19, 2010, 388 p.

Costello C., “Human Rights and the Elusive Universal Subject: Immigration Detention under International Human Rights and EU Law”, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2012, pp. 257-303.

Crisp J., »A State of Insecurity: The Political Economy of Violence in Refugee-Populated Areas of Kenya », New issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 16, December 1999

Crisp J., « Forms and Sources of Violence in Kenya’s Refugee Camps », Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 54 , 2000, p. 69

Cuellar M. F., « Refugee Security and the Organizational Logic of Legal Mandates », Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 37, 2006, pp. 583-723.

da Costa R., The Administration of Justice in Refugee Camps: A Study of Practice, coll Legal and Protection Policy Research Series, Genève, UNHCR Department of International Protection, 2006

Dar O., “Global Health: The Dadaab Camps-Daemons in the Detail”, The World Today, Vol. 67, No. 10, 2011, pp. 18-20.

Deguigné N. Et Témime E.Le camp du Grand Arénas, 1944-1966, Paris, Autrement, coll. Français d’ailleurs, peuple d’ici, 2001

Dicken B., “From Refugee Camps to Gated Communities: Biopolitics and the Ennd of the City 1”, Citizenship Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004, pp. 83-106.

Dormoy D., Slim H (dir.), Réfugiés, immigration clandestine et centres de rétention des immigrés clandestins en droit international, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2008, 234 p.

Doty R. L., Wheatley E. S., “Private Detention and the Immigration Industrial Complex”, International Political Sociology, Vol. 7, 2013, pp. 426-443.

Flynn M., “Immigration Detention and proportionality”, Global Detention Project Working Paper n° 4, February 2011

Fresia M., Von Känel A., Beyond Space of Exception? Reflections on the Camp through the Prism of Refugee Schools, Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, pp 250–272.

Giakoumopoulos C., « Detention of Asylum Seekers in the light of Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights », in J. Hughes & F. Liebaut (dir.), Detention of Asylum Seekers in Europe: Analysis and Perspectives, 1998, pp. 161-182.

Global detention Project, “The Detention of Asylum Seekers in the Meditterranean Region”, Global Detention Project Backgrounder, April 2015

Goodwin-Gill S., « International Law and the Detention of Refugees and Asylum Seekers », The International migration review, Vol 20, No 2, Summer 1986

Goodwin-Gill S., “Rwanda Zaire, Refugee Camps and the Protection of Refugees”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996

Govindaraj P., « Waves of Life: the Role of Radio in Bhutanese Refugee Camps in Nepal », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 258, July 2013

Hanafi S., Long T., « Governance, Governmentalities and the State of Exceptions in the Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon », Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 23, No 2, 2010, pp. 134-159.

Harrell-Bond B., « Are Refugee Camps good for Children? », New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 29, August 2000

Harrell-Bond B., “Can Humanitarian Work with Refugees be Humane?”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 24, 2002, pp. 51-85.

Herz M., « Refugee Camps in Chad: Planning Strategies and the Architect’s Involvement in the Humanitarian Dilemma », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 147, December 2007

Hocing W., « Self-image and the well-being of refugees in Rhino Camp, Uganda », New issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 103, April 2004

Holzer E., « What happens to law in a refugee camp? », Law and Society Review, Vol. 47, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 837-872.

Horst C., »Vital Links in Social Security: Somali Refugees in the Dadaab Camps, Kenya », New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 38, April 2001

Horst C., “Buufis amongst Somalis in Dadaab: The Transnational and Historical Logics behind Resettlement Dreams”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2006, pp. 142-157.

Hughes J. & Liebaut F. (ed.), Detention of Asylum Seekers in Europe: Analysis and Perspectives, The Hague, Kluwer law International, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1998

Human Right Watch, Jailing Refugees. Arbitrary Detention of Refugees in the US Who Fail to Adjust to permanent Resident Status, 2009, 35 p.

International Crisis Group (ICG), The Youth Movement in Sahrawi Refugee Camps, 25 April 2018

IRIN, In Bangladesh refugee camps, the nascent Rohingya insurgency commands support and sows fear, 27 November 2017

Jacobsen K., “A Framework for Exploring the Political and Security Context of Refugee Populated Area”, Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol.  19, No. 1, 2000, pp. 3-22.

Janmyr M., Protecting Civilians in Refugee Camps, Unable and Unwilling States, UNHCR and international responsibility, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Coll. International Refugee Law Series, Vol. 1, 2014, 400 p.

Janmyr M., « Attributing Wrongful Conduct of Implementing Partners to UNHCR – International Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Refugee Camps », Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies, 2014, pp. 42-69.

Janmyr M., “Protecting Civilians In Refugee Camps: Unable And Unwilling States, UNHCR And International Responsibility”, Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 28, Issue 4, December 2015

Kagan M., « “We live in a country of UNHCR” The UN surrogate state and refugee policy in the Middle East », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 201, ebruary 2011

Kobelinsky C., Makaremi C. et al., Enfermés dehors. Enquêtes sur le confinement des étrangers, Paris, Editions du Croquant, 2009, 335 p.

Kofford K., « An examination of the Law, or Lack thereof, in Refugee and displacement camps », Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 35, No 1, 2012, pp. 173-216.

Kublitz A., « The Ongoing Catastrophe: Erosion of Life in the Danish Camps », Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, pp. 229–249.

Lambert P., Pettiti Chr. (dir.), Les mesures relatives aux étrangers à l’épreuve de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, Bruxelles, Bruylant, coll. Droit et Justice, vol. 46, 2003, 149 p.

Lawson Jane E., « What Happens after the War? How Refugee Camp Peace Programmes Contribute to Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Strategies », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 245, UNHCR, October 2012

Le Cour Grandmaison O., Lhuilier G., Valluy J. (dir.) Le retour des camps : Sangatte, Lampedusa, Guantanamo, Paris, Editions Autrement, 2007

Lecadet C., « Refugee Politics: Self-Organized ‘Government’ and Protests in the Agamé Refugee Camp (2005–13) », Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 187–207.

Leung L., « Taking refuge in technology: communication practices in refugee camps and immigration detention », New Issues in Refugee, Research Paper No. 202, February 2011

Loescher G., “UNHCR and the Erosion of Refugee Protection”, Forced Migration Review, Vol. 10, 2001, pp. 28-30.

Lyon B., “Detention of Migrants: Harscher Policies, Increasing International Law Protection”, in Chetail V., Bauloz C. (dir.), Research Handbook on International law and Migration, Edward Elgard Publishing, 2013, pp. 173-193.

Lyytinen E., « Household energy in refugee and IDP camps: challenges and solutions for UNHCR », New issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 172, May 2009

Makaremi, C. Kobelinsky (dir.), Confinement des étrangers : entre circulation et enfermement, Cultures & Conflits, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2008, 183 p.

MeadowsF. (dir.), Habiter le campement, Paris, Editions Cité de l’Architecture, 2016

Møller B., Refugees, Prisoners and Camps. A Functional Analysis of the Phenomenon of Encampment, Palgrave Pivot, 2015, 140 p.

Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), Camp Management Toolkit, May 2008

O’Nions H., “No Right to Liberty : The Detention of Asylum Seekers for Administrative Convenience”, European Journal of Migration Law, Vol. 10, 2008, pp. 149-185.

Omata N., “Unwelcome Participation, Undesirable Agency? Paradoxes of De-Politicisation in a Refugee Camp”, Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 36, 2017, pp. 108-131.

Pacurar A., “Smuggling, detention and expulsion of irregular migrants: A study on international legal norms, standards and practices”, European Journal of Migration and Law, No 2, 2003, p. 259-283.

Peschanski D., La France des camps. L’internement 1938-1946, Paris, Gallimard, 2002

Peteet J., « Camps and Enclaves: Palestine in the Time of Closure », Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, pp. 208–228.

Peyronnet C., « Rétention des demandeurs d’asile et droit à la liberté et à la sûreté : Les errements stratégiques de la Cour de justice », La Revue des droits de l’homme [En ligne], Actualités Droits-Libertés, mis en ligne le 18 mars 2016, consulté le 18 mars 2016. URL : http://revdh.revues.org/2070

Pry S. H., “Justice in Site II Refugee Camp”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 2, 1990, pp. 133 ss.

Purkey A.-L., « Whose Right to What Justice – The Administration of Justice in Refugee Camps », New England Journal of International & Comparative Law, 2011, pp. 121-131.

Rahola F., “La forme-camp. Pour une généalogie des lieux de transit et d’internement du present”, Cultures & Conflits, n° 68 – Circulation et archipels de l’exception, 2007, pp. 31-50.

Ramadan A., “Spatialising the Refugee Camp”, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 65-77.

Rodier C., « Les camps d’étrangers, dispositif clé de la politique d’immigration et d’asile de l’Union européenne », in Perrouty P.-A. (éd.), La mise à l’écart de l’étranger, centres fermés et expulsions, éd. Labor, 2004

Rodier C., et Saint-Saens I., « Contrôler et filtrer : les camps au service des politiques migratoires », in Chetail V. (dir.), Mondialisation, migration et droits de l’homme, le droit international en question, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2007, pp. 619-661.

Ruedin X.-B., “Aliens’ and Asylum Seekers’ Detention under Article 5(1)(f) ECHR », Revue Suisse de Droit International, 2010/4, pp. 483 ss.

Sastra C. C., “The Human Rights Situation in Site II Camp: Cambodin Displaced Persons’ Camp in Thailand”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 2, 1990, pp. 130 ss.

Saul B., “Dark Justice: Australia’s Indefinite Detention of Refugees on Security Grounds under International Human Rights Law”, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 685 ss.

Schmidt A., «Camps versus settlements», Forced Migration Online, 2003, p. 1-29.

Slaughter A., Crisp J., « A Surrogate State? The Role of UNHCR in Protracted Refugee Situations », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 168, Geneva, UNHCR, January 2009

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Sohier J., « Les privations de liberté de l’étranger, en droit belge au regard de l’article 5 de la Convention européenne », RTDH, 1999, pp. 147-167.

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Trapp Micah M., « Remittances as informal aid: Livelihoods and migration in a Liberian refugee camp », New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No. 266, November 2013

Triche Naumik A., “International Law and Detention of US Asylum Seekers: Contrasting Matter of D-J- with the United Nations Refugee Convention”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 661-702.

Turner S., »Angry young men in camps: gender, age and class relations among Burundian refugees in Tanzania », New issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No. 9, June 1999

Turner S., “”Suspended Spaces – Contesting Sovereignties in a Refugee Camp”, in Hansen T. & Stepputat F. (eds.), Sovereign Bodies: Citizens, Migrants and States in the Postcolonial World, Princeton, Princeton UP, 2005, pp. 312-332.

Turner S., Politics of Innocence: Hutu Identity, Conflict and Camp Life, Oxford, Berghahn, 2010

Turner S., « What Is a Refugee Camp? Explorations of the Limits and Effects of the Camp », Journal of Refugee Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 139–148, https://doi-org.bcujas-ezp.univ-paris1.fr/10.1093/jrs/fev024

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Wilde R., « Quis Custoried Ipsos Custodes? Why and how UNHCR governance of ‘development’ refugee camps should be subject to international human rights law », Yale Human Rights and Development Journal, Vol. 1, 1998.

Wilsher D., Immigration Detention Law, History, Politics, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2012, 396 p.

Women’s Refugee Commission, « The woman can decide for herself » – The Intersection of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Disability for Refugees in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, October 2016